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Professor of Classical Archaeology and History of Art, Yale University I Style and iconology 17 1 II Artists and patrons 180 8 b Classical cities and sanctuaries 184 by the late r. Wycherley, formerly Professor of Greek, University College of North Wales, Bangor 8r Rebuilding in Athens and Attica 206 by the late r. Wycherley 8 d Panhellenic cults and panhellenic poets 223 by n. Richardson, Fellow of Merton College, Oxford 1 The panhellenic festivals in the fifth century b.c. knox, formerly Director of the Center for Hellenic Studies, Washington 1 Introduction 268 11 Tragedy 272 in Comedy 282 8^ Society and economy 287 by J. andrewes 1 War in Ionia and Persian intervention 464 11 The beginnings of the Athenian revolution 471 hi The Four Hundred 474 iv The Five Thousand replace the Four Hundred 479 v The Hellespont campaigns and the return of Alcibiades 481 vi Lysander and the collapse of Athens 489 vii Epilogue 496 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 Vlll CONTENTS Chronological notes 499 Chronological table 506 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbreviations page 5 1 4 A General 5 1 8 B Chronology 522 C Sources 523 I Historiography 523 II Inscriptions 527 in Coinage 530 D Athens: internal affairs 5 3 1 E The Athenian empire 5 3 5 F The Greek states 539 G The Peloponnesian War 541 H Sicily 543 1 General 543 11 Hiero and Theron 544 hi Fall of tyrannies, constitutional history 544 iv Sicel movement 545 v Syracuse and Tyrrhenian affairs 546 vi Coinage 546 I Art and architecture 547 J Literature and philosophy 554 K Religion and festivals 5 5 7 L Society and economy 561 Index 5 67 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 MAPS 1 Greece and Western Asia Minor page 2—3 2 Central Greece and the Peloponnese 98 3 Sicily 148 4 Western Asia Minor and the Hellespont 466 ix Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 TEXT-FIGURES 1 Fragment of an Athenian decree ( IG i 3 68 = M-L 68) concerning tribute, with a relief showing tribute bags and vessels page 5 5 2 Silver coin of the Arcadian League 106 3 Layout of Athenian tribute-list stela I 124 4 Silver coins of Sybaris and Thurii 142 5 Silver coin of Amisus, renamed Piraeus 146 6 Bronze helmet of Etruscan type dedicated by Hiero at Olympia 1 52 7 Silver coins of Himera and Aitna 1 56 8 Silver litra of Camarina 158 9 Silver tetradrachms of Messana, Zancle and Selinus 160 10 Silver decadrachms of Syracuse 168 11 Silver tetradrachm of Acragas 169 t2 Plan of the fifth-century sanctuary of Aphaea on Aegina 188 13 Temple of Zeus at Olympia 189 14 Temple of Zeus Olympius at Acragas 190 15 Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae 192 16 Corinthian capital from the temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, restored 193 17 Plan of the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia, fifth century b.c. andrewes , formerly Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford 1 The failure of the Peace 433 n Mantinea and the aftermath 437 hi Athenian policy and politics 440 iv Melos 444 v Sicily: the first phase 446 vi Sicily: Gylippus and the turn of the tide 453 vii Sicily: the final disaster 460 1 1 The Spartan resurgence 464 by the late a.Not sadly, I still got this crazy ham steak and eggs breakfast that was out of this world. I had a plane to catch so I had to eat quickly at the bar, and I left before the basket of pastries even arrived. Stick to the blackjack tables, and only order hard liquor. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY V THE FIFTH CENTURY B. THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY SECOND EDITION VOLUME V The Fifth Century b.c. First published 1992 Fifth printing 2006 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Card no. Rhodes, Professor of Ancient History in the University of Durham I The foundation of the League 54 11 The early history of the League 40 hi The ambitions of the Athenian democrats 49 iv The mid-century crisis 54 4 The Athenian revolution 62 by P. RHODES i Athens after the Persian Wars 62 II The reform of the Areopagus 67 hi Periclean democracy 77 iv The impact of Athenian democracy 87 5 Mainland Greece, 479-45 1 b . 212 28 The ‘Prison of Socrates’, south west of the Agora, Athens, reconstruction by J. Jones 214 29 Restoration of the fafade of the Stoa of Zeus, Athens 21 5 30 Plan of the Acropolis, Athens 216 31 The temple by the Ilissus at Athens 219 x Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 TEXT-FIGURES xi 32 Festival at a pillar image of Dionysus from an Attic red-figure stamnos by the Dinos Painter, about 420 B. 253 33 Attic red-figure chous, late fifth century b.c.75-85719 isbn o 521 23347 x (hardback) SE Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS List of maps page ix List of text-figures x Preface xiii 1 Sources, chronology, method i by d. lewis, Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford 2 Greece after the Persian Wars 1 5 by ]. Davies, Rath bone Professor of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology in the University of Liverpool 3 The Delian League to 449 b.c. 254 34 Kratenskos from Brauron 257 3 5 Lead puppet in a box, from the Ceramicus cemetery, Athens 267 36 Satyr player from an Attic red-figure cup by Makron, about 490 b . 271 37 Clay figure of a comic actor 283 38 Plan of Pylos— Sphacteria 415 39 Bronze shield captured from the Spartans by the Athenians at Pylos and dedicated in the Stoa Poikile at Athens 419 40 Plan of Syracuse 454 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 PREFACE This volume is unlike any which has preceded it. 223 11 The religious character of the games 226 in The order and development of the festivals 229 iv The athletes: background and careers 232 v Poets and patrons 237 vi The poems 239 vii Aftermath 243 8e Athenian cults and festivals 245 by Walter burkert, Professor of Classical Philology, University of Zurich 1 Continuity and change 245 11 Note on the sources 248 in The cycle of the year 249 iv Polis religion: cults defining identity 256 v Divination 262 vi The Mysteries 264 vn Private piety 265 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS Vll 8 f Athenian religion and literature 268 by b. 194 18 Plan of the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, early fifth century b.c^.
That point was noticed by Sallust in the first century b.c.: As I reckon it, the actions of the Athenians were indeed vast and magnificent, but rather less substantial than report makes them.
Lincoln Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art in the University of Oxford J. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any pan may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. 1 53 iv After the Peace 138 7 Sicily, 478— 43 1 b.c. 207 25 Athens, Piraeus and the Long Walls 208 26 Sanctuary of Artemis Aristoboule, Athens 210 27 Plan of the Athenian Agora at the end of the fifth century b.c.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford JOHN BOARDMAN f.b.a. R athbone Professor of Ancient History and Classical Archaeology in the University of Liverpool M. Kenan, Jr, Professor of Classics, Swarthmore College and Professor of Classical Studies, University of Pennsylvania Cambridge UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB 2 2ru, UK 40 West 20th Street, New York, ny 10011-4211, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, vie 3207, Australia Ruiz de Alarcdn 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain Dock House, The Waterfront, Cape Town 8001, South Africa Cambridge University Press 1992 This book is in copyright. LEWIS i From 479 to 461 96 11 The ‘First Peloponnesian War’ 1 1 1 6 The Thirty Years’ Peace 121 by D. LEWIS i The Peace of Callias 1 2 1 v Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 VI CONTENTS ii The empire established 127 in 446 b.c. Professor of Ancient History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem I Sicily in the age of Hiero 149 II The fall of the .tyrannies 1 54 hi The Sicel movement 161 iv Democracy and culture at Syracuse and Acragas 165 8 Greek culture, religion and society in the fifth century b.c. 194 19 Athens, the theatre of Dionysus and Odeum, late fifth century b.c. 199 21 Reconstructions of the Attic farmhouses beside the Dema wall (a), and at Vari ( b ), by J. Jones 201 22 Houses west of the Areopagus at Athens 202 23 Plan of Classical Rhodes 204 24 Athens in the late fifth century b.c.
But because writers of genius grew up there, Athenian deeds are renowned as the greatest throughout the world. 8.2-4) In this volume we shift Sallust’s emphasis, and regard the efflores- cence of literature (and art) as itself a major historical phenomenon to be examined and explained.
The talent of those who did them is judged by the powers of praise of these outstanding literary geniuses. Much of the cultural achievement survives, for us to assess by our own criteria.